Principle and application of fiber optic gyroscope
- By:Myanmar B2b
The principle of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is based on the Sagnac effect, which is the phenomenon where a beam of light traveling in a loop experiences a phase shift due to the rotation of the loop. The FOG utilizes this effect by sending a beam of light through a coiled optical fiber in opposite directions. The two beams of light will experience a phase shift when the fiber coil rotates, which is proportional to the angular velocity of the rotation.
The FOG consists of three main components: a laser source, a coiled optical fiber, and a photodetector. The laser source emits a beam of light which is split into two and sent through the coiled optical fiber in opposite directions. The two beams of light are then recombined and sent to the photodetector, which detects the phase difference between the two beams caused by the rotation of the fiber coil.
Fiber optic gyroscopes have several advantages over traditional mechanical gyroscopes. They have no moving parts, making them more durable and reliable. They are also more accurate and have a higher resolution. Additionally, they are not affected by magnetic fields, making them ideal for use in navigation and guidance systems for aircraft, ships, and other vehicles.
FOGs have many applications in various fields, including:
1. Navigation: FOGs are commonly used in navigation systems for aircraft, ships, and other vehicles, where they provide precise measurements of angular velocity and orientation.
2. Robotics: FOGs are used in robotics for precise control of robotic arms and other mechanisms that require accurate measurements of angular velocity.
3. Geophysical exploration: FOGs are used in geophysical exploration to measure the rotation of the Earth, which can provide valuable information about the Earth's structure and composition.
4. Aerospace: FOGs are used in aerospace applications such as satellites and space telescopes, where they provide precise measurements of orientation and position.
5. Military: FOGs are used in military applications such as weapons systems, reconnaissance, and surveillance, where they provide accurate measurements of orientation and motion.
Overall, FOGs are an important technology that plays a critical role in a wide range of applications that require precise measurements of angular velocity and orientation.